Cheatsheets: Part-I

What is Tensorflow?

Tensorflow is an end-to-end open-source platform for high-performance numerical computation, specifically for machine learning and deep learning.
Its flexible architecture enables to easily deploy computation across a variety of platforms (CPUs, GPUs, and TPUs), as well as mobile and edge devices, desktops, and clusters of servers. It provides different tools for developers to easily build and deploy Machine learning solutions.

Release type of Tensorflow?

Google Brain team developed Tensorflow for its internal use and later released it publicly on November 9, 2015, under Apache Open-source Licence 2.0. The stable version of Tensorflow was released in 2017. Open-source nature of the project allows you to use, modify and redistribute the modified version of it a fee without paying anything to Google.

Use of Tensorflow?

Google uses Tensorflow in the search engine, translation, image captioning or recommendations.

What is a tensor?

A tensor is a data structure to represent the data. A tensor is a typed multi-dimensional array. Tensors can be zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, two dimensional and 3-dimensional or n-dimensional

Types of tensors

Zero-dimensional - Scalar
One-dimensionlal - Vector
Two-dimensional - Matrix
Three-dimensional - Matrix
N-dimensional - Matrix

TensorFlow represents tensors as n-dimensional arrays of base datatypes. Each element in the tensor has the same data type and the datatype is always known.

Rank of a tensor

The rank of a tf.Tensor object is its number of dimensions. Also called order or degree or n-dimension

Shape of a tensor

The shape of a tensor is the number of elements in each dimension.

To get the shape of a tensor use
``` >> tensor.shape ```
  • Values inside tf.Tensor can’t be changed, but tf.Variable represents a tensor whose value can be changed by running ops on it.
  • tf.Variable exists outside the context of a single session.run call

What is a constant?

Constant is a type of data structure in Tensorflow. Once assigned, its values can’t be changed at the execution time. A very important thing is the initialization should be with a value, not with an operation.
A constant can be created using ``` a = tf.constant([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) ```

What is a variable?

Variables are used to store the state of a graph in Tensorflow. They are mutable and can be changed during the execution. Variables need to initialized while declaring it. The shape of the variable should be specified during the construction of the graph

Variables can be created using:
``` my_variable = tf.Variable([.5],dtype=tf.float32) my_variable = tf.get_variable("my_variable", [1, 2, 3]) ```
In the future, its value can be changed using tf.assign().

What is a placeholder?

Placeholder is a variable which doesn’t hold a value initially and value to it can be assigned later. It is a place in memory where values will be stored later on.

  • Placeholders are used to feed external data into a Graph
  • Placeholder allows values to be assigned later
  • The data type of placeholder must be specified during the creation of the placeholder

What is a graph?

A graph is a flowchart of operations which you want to perform on your input. It defines computations. In a Graph, the nodes represent units of computation and the edges represent the data consumed or produced by a computation. Disclaimer: It doesn’t hold any values.
Code to create a tensorflow graph ``` Get default graph >> tf.get_default_graph() Create a new graph >> graph = tf.Graph() Print all operations in a graph >> print(g.get_operations()) ```
Also, you can work with multiple graphs in Tensorflow. You just need to create multiple graphs and each graph will have its own session.

Illustration of a basic Tensorflow graph

Source:Graph and session

Advantages of graphs

  • Parallelism
  • Distributed execution
  • Compilation
  • Portability

What is a session?

A session allows us to execute operations specified in a data flow graph. We can execute the whole graph or subpart of the graph.

A session does these two things:
  • It allocates resources
  • Stores the actual values of intermediate results

Creating sessions

Default in-process session can be created like: ``` with tf.Session() as sess: # Perform operations here ```
A remote session can be created by: ``` with tf.Session("grpc://example.org:2222") # Perform operations here ```

Mathematical operations in Tensorflow

``` Add two tensors of the same type, x + y >> tf.add(x, y) Subtract tensors of the same type, x — y >> tf.sub(x, y) Multiply two tensors element-wise >> tf.mul(x, y) Take the element-wise power of x to y >> tf.pow(x, y) Equivalent to pow(e, x), where e is Euler’s number (2.718…) >> tf.exp(x) ```

Mathematical operations in Tensorflow

``` Equivalent to pow(x, 0.5) >> tf.sqrt(x) Take the element-wise division of x and y >> tf.div(x, y) Same as tf.div, except casts the arguments as a float >> tf.truediv(x, y) Same as truediv, except rounds down the final answer into an integer >> tf.floordiv(x, y) Takes the element-wise remainder from division >> tf.mod(x, y) ```

A very simple Tensorflow program

``` # Create a constant x = tf.constant([[37.0, -23.0], [1.0, 4.0]]) # Create a variable w which will be mutable w = tf.Variable(tf.random_uniform([2, 2])) # Create computation graph y = tf.matmul(x, w) output = tf.nn.softmax(y) init_op = w.initializer with tf.Session() as sess: # Run the initializer on `w` sess.run(init_op) # Evaluate `output`. `sess.run(output)` will return a NumPy array containing # the result of the computation. print(sess.run(output)) # Evaluate `y` and `output`. Note that `y` will only be computed once, and its # result used both to return `y_val` and as an input to the `tf.nn.softmax()` # op. Both `y_val` and `output_val` will be NumPy arrays. y_val, output_val = sess.run([y, output]) ```
Source: https://www.tensorflow.org/guide/graphs

Graph visualizer

The graph visualizer is a component of TensorBoard that renders the structure of your graph visually in a browser.

Graph can se saved for visualization using:
``` with tf.Session() as sess: writer = tf.summary.FileWriter("/tmp/log/...", sess.graph) ```
To see the graph, start tensorboard server and navigate to graphs in the browser.

What is eager execution?

“TensorFlow's eager execution is an imperative programming environment that evaluates operations immediately, without building graphs: operations return concrete values instead of constructing a computational graph to run later”
This line can be added to enable eager execution in the older versions of Tensorflow.
``` tf.enable_eager_execution() ```
In version 2.0 and above, eager execution is enabled by default.


Read the documentation at tensorflow.org